Friday, July 22, 2011

Funnest Live Shows

We go to see bands live for a variety of reasons. We go see bands for the music (obviously), the musicianship, and sometimes just to have a raunchy time. Some of the following bands are bands I don't always listen to in my free time, but I sure as hell see them live whenever they come around because they ALWAYS bring a raunchy good time:

Matt Harvey and co. are back and from what I've heard of their new album, "All Guts, No Glory" (which you can stream here for free:, it's still the balls out Gore Metal you would expect! I think I've seen Exhumed a total of three or four times and each time is just pure thrashin' metal madness! Matt gets this crazy look in his eyes as he seemingly recites medical dictionaries and grisly necromantic tales while the other members whip their hair around like there is no tomorrow, enticing audience members to do the same. At one point during one of the shows, the three stringmen all held up the backs of their instruments to the audience and what did it read? "GORE.FUCKING.METAL." in crooked duct tape. Hell fuckin' yes!

Cephalic Carnage
I think the first time I saw Cephalic Carnage I was 15 or 16 years old. I think I had only recently bought "Exploiting Dysfunction" and my friend had told me their drummer was a bio-chemist. When they came out and launched straight into "Hybrid", I could have only assumed that their bio-chemist drummer (John Merryman) had cooked up some nasty stimulant concoction for the five of them because they all went bat shit crazy on stage. I then had the pleasure of seeing the great Cephalic at a 20 person show with about 7 good friends. When they put on their Black Metal masks for "Black Metal Sabbath" I think we all about lost it. Cephalic Carnage is one of those rare metal bands that doesn't take themselves quite too seriously, and they make it quite clear to everyone.

A while ago, I mentioned to Wulf that "Dixie" Dave (vocalist/bassist) has to be considered one of the "madmen" of metal, if elite and notorious group were to exist. I've seen them twice and I can certainly attest to the madness that runs through "Dixie" Dave's Southern veins. Besides having one of the dirtiest, meanest bass tones of all time and having a whiskey-drenched croak of a voice that would make your grandpa sound like Justin Bieber, Dave's antics on stage are numerous. Known to cross his eyes, slobber, and jump up and down like a cricket, one would think that Dave is not only playing a few cards short of a full deck, but maybe he is actually mentally handicapped. All joking aside, Dave's use and abuse of substances is also quite apparent. A few friends of mine tell me of a time when they saw Weedeater and Dave was puking on stage into a bucket in the middle of songs. Furthermore, Dave has been nicknamed (besides "Dixie", of course) "The Hummingbird" because he tapes a bottle of Robitussin to his amp, puts a straw in it, and casually strolls over to it periodically throughout a performance. "Why?" you might ask. To throat his coat when it gets raspy from too much touring! (

Amon Amarth
If there is one time you feel the need to chug mead out of a drinking horn, decide to grow a three foot long beard, and drunkenly praise the glory of Valhalla to your uninterested girlfriend, then do it at an Amon Amarth show! On their latest tour for 2011 album, "Surtur Rising", the Swedish sons decided to play the entire tour without any supporting acts. They played the new album all of the way through, then they played old favorites. Two hours of nothing but mid-paced (albeit catchy and melodic) Viking Death Metal means one thing: bangover. My neck must have been sore for a week after that show. After every song vocalist, Johan Hegg, would thank the American crowd in the only way one can: with a raspy "Thank you...thank you very much!"

I've only seen Converge once, and although I LIKE Converge, I don't usually listen to them in my free time. But from what I saw of their live show, there are some people out there that would FUCKING DIE for Converge. I saw them around the time they had released "Jane Doe" (what many consider to be their finest album to date), and they were certainly in top form. With Jacob Bannon's maniacally shrieking and running around on-stage, the band acted as a tightly-knit killing machine with precise and violent noisecore. Unfortunately, with a band like Converge, you're going to see a lot of really retarded hardcore dancing in the pit. However, I remember at the apex of "The Saddest Day" that people literally converged in the front-center of the stage. It was like a gigantic car wreck with people trying to stage dive while simultaneously trying to get up on stage. Complete ecstatic chaos.

Soilent Green
Of the original NOLA bands, Soilent Green has been the only one I have had the pleasure of seeing live, but I dare say they are the only ones I would need to see! The night that I saw them, bassist Scott Williams (R.I.P.) was obviously drunk. He kept on yelling at the crowd with comments like, "C'mon you fuckers, what's wrong with you!" while violently swinging his bass around. As with Goatwhore, Ben Falgoust II is a great front man, and I would have no hesitation putting him as one of the best modern metal front men around today. Ben had no problem getting the crowd riled up while the rest of the band ripped Southern grind and groove at its best.

(The Lord Weird) Slough Feg
I honestly can't remember entirely too much from the time I caught Slough Feg. I do remember that mainman, Mike Scalzi, fearlessly standing on top of the pinball machines that were right next to the stage while ripping some ultra-melodic solos. All I could think of besides, "Holy shit he is going to break that glass and his leg is going to get cut up to shit and he'll probably break his ankle too and maybe his guitar and the show will be over" was "Fuck yea!" Slough Feg's Iron Maidenisms are far from hidden and one can practically imagine that you're seeing an embryonic Maiden when you see Slough Feg. For being an oft-dismissed band in the world of metal, Slough Feg manages to put on one helluva show.

Dimmu Borgir
Keep in mind that I saw Dimmu Borgir right after they released "Puritanical Euphoric Misanthropia" and they were still playing in small venues. Although I must confess that some of the show was plagued by bad sound management, it was one of the most entertaining metal shows I've ever been to. Galder with his various metal faces, Vortex with his operatic singing, Shagrath holding his invisible oranges, and not to mention Nick Barker with his virtuosic drumming and Uncle Fester looks. It was quite a symphonic black metal affair! I'm sure their live shows have only gotten more dramatic as time has gone on.

I've seen Mastodon twice and what enormous contrasts those instances were. I first saw Mastodon after they had released their first EP, "Lifesblood". There may have been about 10-15 people at the venue when the opening band played (local favorites, The Esoteric) and then half of those people left. Kudos to Mastodon for still putting on a really good show with the short set that they had. The next time I saw them, there were about 10-15 TIMES as many people on their "Crack the Skye" tour. Amazing live performance, never missed a note, and had the entire story in movie form on the back drop. They have truly turned themselves into a force to be reckoned with.

Anyone that knows my tastes in metal knows that I hate 99.99% of Power Metal bands. I can't remember the last time that I casually listened to an album by a Power Metal band. However, seeing it performed live is a different thing altogether. I firmly believe that going to a Power Metal show will reinvigorate you with the power of metal and Dragonforce is no exception. With the guitar wizardry of Herman Li and Sam Totman, the ludicrous keyboard runs of Vadim Pruzhanov, and the undying energy of the entire band, they CRAM the power of metal down your throat.

Lawrence, KS Thrash Metal Lords! Maybe I have slight bias because I'm friends with the band, but I have seen Hammerlord at least 10 times. Big credit to Ty and JP for every performance having spot on guitar work with virtuosic trade-off solos, whammy bar destruction, and catchy thrashing. However, the rest of the band is just as awesome with Stevie singing about metal and professional wrestlers, Terry headbanging with his bass, and the Hammerlord himself, Adam on drums. I think the last time I saw them I was headbutting Stevie in the stomach while moshing in a pool of sweat and beer. Thrash Metal superb!

There are also TONS of bands that I ASSUME would put on an amazing show, but I have just not had the opportunity for whatever stupid reason. Besides the obvious ones (like Iron Maiden or Motorhead):

The Dillinger Escape Plan
Municipal Waste
Wolves in the Throne Room

I invite any of the other Malicious Intent writers to edit this post to add their own!

- Judge Dredd

Thursday, July 14, 2011

Interview with Isvaroth of Nephrolith!!

Interview conducted via PMs forum, July 2011.

WULF: Congratulations on the successful execution of your new album, "Xullux". I definitely enjoyed listening to this album, especially from a promising new band from Slovenia! How has the reception been for this album so far? What were you aiming to accomplish with "Xullux"? Do you feel like you successfully completed these goals?

ISVAROTH: Xullux was reviewed by webzines all over the globe and it got some fine critics, so I think we are quite satisfied and we’ve broken the ice somehow and from this point on we are going forward and aiming even higher.

WULF: Would you care to talk about the lyrical themes on "Xullux" and the meaning behind this name? Your Myspace describes "Xullux" as an "infinite ignorance and evil light" that covers the essence within humanity. Would you care to elaborate on this more specifically? It's funny, for black metal I found some of the lyrics to surprisingly have a positive, self-empowering message, especially on the title track. Is this an accurate interpretation, or am I way off the mark?

ISVAROTH: Well, Xullux is combined from 2 words: Xul Sumerian word for evil and Lux Latin for light and the words are the reflection of one another. The title connects with the lyrics that individually connect in the same point being how we are spiritually incapable and how the material world corrupts us. The idea of the light being the main antagonist because it enables us to see the material world while it suppresses the soul. That is the core of humanity’s ignorance that is never-ending. Yes, your interpretation is quite correct. The lyrics try to encourage people to find the might within themselves, in their souls or through death. I think this as positive as any other Satanic message from other black metal acts.

WULF: Your album is surprisingly high-quality for a young, new black metal band. I was definitely expecting demo-quality, bedroom black metal type stuff. Did you record the album yourselves? What was this process like, and how long has this album been in the making?

ISVAROTH: We said we’ll try to mix that kind of quality into our music, because there is not much black metal bands that have that. We went into Dyz Sonic Temple studio on February 2010 and we recorded all the instruments including the vocals in three months. We were quite fast because we have recorded almost every day. So, the album was mastered and mixed in June 2010 and we were really glad that all happened so fast.

WULF: Honestly, besides Metal Camp I don't really know much about the Slovenian metal scene. What is it like there, at least in your region of the country? Is there an exploding scene, or is it still growing?

ISVAROTH: Slovenia is really a small country but I must admit we have quite a high number of concerts here. There are a lot of local gigs with Slovenian bands for about 50-100 people, and foreign bands, which also play in clubs for about 50-100 people. Then there are bigger metal concerts where the numbers revolve around at least 500 people. But like I said, we are small (population 2mio) and 100-200 people per gig is really good for a standard concert. Metal Camp is of course the highlight of our metal scene.

WULF: I find the album cover to be very well-drawn and intriguing. If I'm not mistaken, the art was designed with help by Simon D from the Slovenian black metal band Bleeding Fist. What role did he play exactly in creating this album art? To me, it looks like the rotting corpse of the Virgin Mary breastfeeding an infant Jesus. Is this meant to be a statement towards Christianity specifically, or organized religion in general? At any rate, it definitely grabs your attention!

ISVAROTH: That’s right, the cover was made by Simon D., the bass player of blasphemous Bleeding fist. We are friends with them and Simon offered himself he could make us a fine cover and we said yes, why not. As you noticed, that is an undead Mary with a baby Jesus. He is representing the humanity that sucks the hypocrisy and ignorance out of the breasts of material world. One of the main culprits for this cause is of course organized religion.

WULF: This is something I'm always curious much of the time, modern metal bands talk about video games, movies, and other music, but I'm always curious as to what people are reading and the role, if any, these books play in a band's lyrical themes or overall philosophies. Is there any specific literature or writer that plays a strong role in Nephrolith's music?

ISVAROTH: I’m sorry to disappoint you, but our vocalist and lyricist Nerthag, as far as I know, idolizes no writers or tries to follow no specific ideologies or philosophies. The lyrics are just from self-experience and his view of this world.

WULF: You're a band that performs live. Have you only played in Slovenia, or have you toured Europe and/or elsewhere? Are there any future plans for spreading your live pestilence to North America?

ISVAROTH: Yes, we’ve played only in Slovenia, over 25 gigs in 2 years and still counting. We would love to go beyond our borders, but it’s not that easy. If we get any chance to play in the US, we would love to, because I know there are a lot of crazy mofos out there that have yet to hear our music. Maybe someday we’ll come overseas to cleanse you all! >:]

WULF: I hate to take the focus away from Nephrolith, but as someone who is ignorant towards much of what's going on in the Slovenian metal scene, would you care to recommend any Slovenian metal bands that are similar to your style or friends of the band that would be worth checking out?

ISVAROTH: There are no bands that are similar to us. But we have some fine black metal bands like Somrak, Grimoir, Krvnik/Vinternatt, Bleeding fist and so on.

WULF: Thank you for taking the time to do this interview! Any final words or comments?

ISVAROTH: Thanks to you for this interview and to all the people who’ll read this!

Saturday, July 9, 2011

Finally, The Vikings Are Taking Acid!

Since its advent, one indelible element in metal has always been the musicians' use (and abuse) of substances. Whether it be Electric Wizard's or Sleep's (and essentially the rest of the stoner metal/rock genre) non-stop smoke-a-thon, Iron Maiden's legendary Herculean drinking, Sigh's use of hallucinogenic mushrooms, or EyeHateGod's use of...well, everything.

As legendary comedian, Bill Hicks, put it, musicians who make the records you love and cherish are “real fucking high on drugs” and Metal is no exception. Despite metal’s historical connection with substance use, starting with none other than Black Sabbath, what I would argue to be “psychedelic elements” have only relatively recently been introduced into many unexpected sub-genres of metal. Keep in mind that I’m not referring to Stoner Metal/Rock because the basis for that entire sub-genre is drugs, so we won’t be addressing that green monster. The primary sub-genres that have recently injected psychedelic elements on a somewhat large scale have been the Viking, Folk, and Black Metal genres.

In the last decade there seems to have developed a fascination of psychedelia within the Black, Viking, and Folk Metal sub-genres. Since the late 90s and early 00s, bands within said genres of metal have been experimenting with their foundational sound. One way they have been doing so is incorporating, only if subtly, the sounds of 60s and 70s psychedelia.

There are a number of bands...Enslaved, Peste Noire, Blut Aus Nord, and more recently Nachtmystium, Drudkh, Nokturnal Mortum who have been experimenting with such sounds.

Since the early 2000s, Norwegian Progressive Black/Viking Metal band Enslaved has praised classic psychedelic/progressive rock bands like Pink Floyd and King Crimson amongst others, whose influence has been more than apparent in their music. They also have openly referred to their use of marijuana in interviews (I can't find the link, but I remember reading a hilarious interview in Terrorizer many moons ago).

With 2010 releases from Ukrainian Folk/Black Metal bands Drudkh ("Handful of Stars") and especially Nokturnal Mortum ("The Voice of Steel"), their music has taken on more psychedelic qualities. On Drudkh's newest release, they seem to have stripped down their sound to essentially a minimalist sound (at least by metal standards). Furthermore, there are definite echoes of 70s guitar rock solos and even an instance of experimental guitar noise. Nokturnal Mortum have an elongated passage in "..." where they combine a bouncing folk rhythm with a 70s era guitar rock solo echoing Pink Floyd.

American bands such as Nachtmystium have acknowledge the psychedelic elements in their music to such a degree that they their 2008 album, "Assassins: Black Meddle, Pt 1", was partially named after the Pink Floyd album, "Meddle". Furthermore, the introductory track "One of These Nights" which even has a similar galloping rhythm to the Pink Floyd track entitled "One of These Days" which opens up the Meddle album. Musically, there are parts of almost hypnotic repetition and even a fucking saxophone solo. Not surprisingly, Blake Judd of Nachtmystium often casually talks about his drug problems in interviews (

Within French Black Metal bands, there seems to be a far eviler approach to their particular brand of psychedelia. Bands such as Blut aus Nord and Peste Noire have a psychedelic sound that what one might characterize as "disconcerting" and "disorienting". On "The Work Which Transforms God" by Blut Aus Nord, one practically develops vertigo as the guitars swirl with dynamic use of the whammy bar and abstract dissonance. What can be said about Peste Noire that hasn't been said before? In their bizarre brand of black metal, they include birds chirping and French baroque/folk music (complete with accordion accompaniments). I pray every night to Prince of Darkness that Famine won't be committed to a mental hospital so he can continue to make righteously mind-altering black metal.

Who can forget English Black Metal madmen, The Meads of Asphodel? Their use of psychoactive substances ( has been documented and is more than apparent in their odd amalgam of Black Metal and seemingly every other style of music known to man.

So what is it about? Why this emergence in an oft looked down upon style of music in Black/Viking/Folk Metal, and hell, metal in general? For me, I often think about metal as a type of music that pushes the musicians and the listeners to a point of sensory overload in more ways than one. Adding psychedelic elements is just a different way that that point of "sensory overload" can be pursued. Rather than pursuing that point through pushing physical boundaries, these bands are pursuing that point through pushing mental boundaries.

I could go on and on about this, but I'll cut myself short while I'm ahead.

Tune in. Horns up. Drop out.

- Judge Dredd

Wednesday, July 6, 2011

Most UnMetal Band Names

I think we can all agree that there are a plethora of utterly ridiculous names for metal bands: Fuck...I'm Dead, Goblin Cock, Cock and Ball Torture, Anal Cunt (R.I.P. Seth Putnam), Flagitious Idiosyncrasy in the Dilapidation, and Clotted Symmetric Sexual Organ just to name a few. Hell, there is even a Turkish band called ...Aaaarrghh... There is also a French band called Aaaaargh! Bloody 2-Handed Chainaxe Blow if you're not into that whole brevity thing (A!B2-HCB...?).

But the thing that all of those band names have in common, besides being ridiculous, is that they all still sound metal as fuck. There is a much smaller population of band names that, well...don't sound quite as "metal as fuck" as the previous bands mentioned. In fact, they don't sound metal by a long shot. Here are some of the band names I have in mind:

Vicious Rumors
If I was a 13 year-old girl and was wanting to start a metal band with my giggling, acne-faced, pre-pubescent girlfriends, I think Vicious Rumors would probably be my first choice. We could write lyrics about how we heard that Veronica gave, like, five guys hand jobs in the bathroom. Or that Tommy is the hottest guy ever and we want to have, like, 23 babies with him. Well, maybe Potty Mouth or Gossip Girls would be the only better names in that situation.

Job For a Cowboy
THIS IS A JOB FOR...a cowboy? You want to know what A Job For a Cowboy is? Exactly what Heath Ledger and Jake Gyllenhall do to each other throughout the majority of Brokeback Mountain. But in all seriousness, let's for a second consider if the job of a cowboy is actually metal: they spend their days herding and tending to, I mean...I don't know.

Strapping Young Lad
Right, so me and my wifey were wanting to start a brilliant cyber/industrial metal band in tribute to our dear boy, Nigel. We thought it an absolutely splendid idea! He's oh so adorable!

I would totally understand this name if the band members were made of Hasidic Jews. With their Rabbi's blessing, they decided to start the heaviest, most complex fucking metal band in the entire fucking galaxy. Raise the horns for Yahweh!

(for those of us less cultured: meshuggah, also meshugah, meshugge, etc. all translate to "crazy" in Yiddish)

"Ahhh, the great sounds of a gentle rain. This reminds me of the last Enya record...(as the metal comes in) WHAT THE FUCK!?"

You've GOT to be kidding me. Just marginally less metal than naming your metal band Fairies and Lollipops, Nightwish (not just the name, but their music as well) reminds me of a horribly depressed, Fantasy reading, 10th grade nerd praying in his bed to the High Gods of Zandorra to be able to kiss Nicole Franklin, the captain of the cheerleading squad. If only those Gods, in all their infallibility and splendor, could hear his lonely prayer. If only they could hear his...night wish.

I can only conclude that some metal bands need to do a hell of a lot more creative thinking when naming their band. Can you think of any more band names that are real but completely unmetal?

- Judge Dredd

Tuesday, July 5, 2011

Interview with Barghest of Spearhead!!!

WULF: How has the reception for this album been so far on your end?

BARGHEST: The reception has been very good so far.

WULF: I would describe Spearhead's sound as relatively straightforward metal, but with allegorical, abstract lyrics and concepts. What were you aiming to acheive with this album, and was this album aimed at a specific audience in particular? Do you feel as if you've accomplished these goals?

BARGHEST: I don’t think there’s a great deal of allegory surrounding the lyrics, and the only abstract conceptions are abstract because they are metaphysical. We certainly planned on making a straightforward album, by which I mean plain-speaking, hostile and belligerent blackened death metal; there’s nothing subtle or equivocal about this album I feel. There is variation in the music - time changes, break-downs, etc. - but the focus was definitely on making a relentless and hateful-sounding album. I think we have achieved this with “Theomachia”. We do not have any specific “audience” in mind when crafting our music – we are not out to please anyone whatsoever.

WULF: While I understand that on "Theomachia" some of the lyrics involve the common misconceptions held by most people regarding ideas like "progress" and "pacifism", I get a strong sense of anger coming from your music as well. Would you agree? Or are you simply attempting to convey these ideas through aggressive music? I guess what I'm asking is how much of a role does actual anger play in your music?

BARGHEST: “Theomachia” is a genuine work of considered and focused hatred, so there is of course an element of anger pervading the music. The lyrics aren’t generally anger- or angst-oriented or anything like that though, yet what is said is done with a degree of force. I think if we were a bunch of hippies or something, with no anger in our blood, we would not be able to create this kind of music with any conviction. And I think you will find Spearhead has more conviction than a lot of other current bands in this genre.

WULF: Obviously, it's important for listeners to have their own interpretations of lyrics and lyrical themes when listening to music, but would you care to discuss the meaning behind the word "Theomachia", and perhaps in general some of the themes and ideas you explore on this album?

BARGHEST: I disagree that listeners ought to have their own interpretation of the lyrical subjects. This seems to be only something for bands with poorly considered lyrics. You end up with a superfluity of meaningless opinions this way – isn’t there enough of a problem with a superfluity of opinions? “Theomachia” (or “war of the gods”) refers to the common mythic motif of a divine conflict that precedes the cosmic or aeonic dissolution. This motif is probably more commonly known as the Norse myth of Ragnarok, but parallel conceptions are found in the Indic epic the Mahabharata, and in the Iranian/Zoroastrian mythos for example, as well as elsewhere. The cosmic dissolution and the declining cycle of ages is also something prevalent in a number of ancient world mythologies and cosmologies. “Theomachia” is all about the inevitable march of decay and degeneration, and the self-mastery that the last man must attain if he wishes not to rot among the ruins of the last age, before the cycle of time continues. But I’m not expounding anything new here – this is old wisdom.

WULF: Your interviews are quite fascinating. Obviously, you are often asked about your musical influences, but I'm curious as to if you are influenced by any specific writers or literature? You're quite well-informed when it comes to history, weapons, warfare, etc. Also, I have to ask if you are familiar with the writings of Robert Greene, author of books like 36 Strategies of War and 48 Laws of Power? Just curious.

BARGHEST: There is a certain amount of literary influences that have found their way into “Theomachia”, explicitly or otherwise. To name just a few direct influences: Spengler’s “The Decline of the West”, Evola “Revolt Against the Modern World”, Machiavelli “The Prince”; and mytho-philosophical works such as the Bhagavad Gita, the Eddas, Hesiod’s “Works and Days”, etc.

I’m not familiar with Robert Greene, but I’ll check him out.

WULF: The artwork for "Theomachia" is great. Would you care to discuss the meaning behind this artwork a bit? Who is the artist?

BARGHEST: The artwork was done by Manuel Tinnemans. I don’t want to go into this here in too much detail, but if you study the front cover you will see some relevant motifs, such as the Kali Yantra, some text excerpted from the Bhagavad Gita (11:32), etc. But perhaps you will be able to interpret yourself the meaning of the distant horizon that is flanked on each side by the trappings of war.

WULF: On a personal level, I must ask...are you or anyone else in the band a fan of wargaming (tabletop, video games, etc.)?

BARGHEST: No, I don’t think so. I used to play the Warhammer games a bit when I was a kid, but I don’t have the time nowadays. If you want to play a classic strategic, war-based board game, and you have a few hours to spare, “Risk” is good.

WULF: What are some future plans for the band? Is touring over here in North America something you're interested in? While I don't feel like a DVD or music video is especially your style, but I could be you have any intentions of doing anything visually like this down the road? Also, your previous interviews are always fascinating and you guys definitely have some interesting philosophies and worldviews...have you ever thought about putting out something non-musical, like essays or a manifesto?

BARGHEST: We are currently looking into tour options. Another tour across the US would be good of course, but perhaps not in the immediate future; Europe needs re-conquering first! I can’t see anything like a music video working for Spearhead at the moment. Our standards are pretty high, and we’d probably need an exceptionally high budget to satisfy the requirements a good and appropriate video would entail. We’ll leave this to the MTV bands for now..!

I don’t think I have any real desire to put out an essay or manifesto, because I’m not interested in changing how people think. I am quite happy to let people rot in ignorance. Besides, there are plenty of good books out there for those who disagree with pacifism, modernist values in general, humanitarianism, etc. I wouldn’t be adding anything new.

WULF: Thank you again for taking the time to do this interview! Any final words or comments are yours!

BARGHEST: You’re welcome. Thank you for your support. Svpero Omnia!


Answered by Barghest 1st Jul 2011.